Titan Liquid Rocket Engine
Our earliest booster engine experience came from our work on the cryogenic Titan I. The Aerojet Rocketdyne LR-87 and LR-91 engine comprised the booster engine systems for the silo-based Titan ICBM. The two-stage system originally ran on Liquid oxygen (LOX) and RP-1.Stage 1 consisted of two pump-fed, gas generator cycle, regeneratively cooled engines on a single frame. Stage 2 consisted of a single gas generator cycle regenerativelycooled engine with an ablative skirt. Stage 2 provided roll control by means of turbine exhaust venting. Rated thrust was 300,000lbf for stage 1 (sea level) and 80,000 lbf for the Stage 2 (altitude) Titan I cryogenic engine production rates ran as high as 235 engines per year.
To eliminate logistics problems associated with the Titan I cryogenic oxidizer, liquid oxygen, Aerojet Rocketdyne developed an improved propellant combination, Aerozine 50 (A-50) and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) The new oxidizer is storable at room temperature enabling the loaded missile to be stored for several years without the maintenance requirements associated with cryogenic propellants. The propellant conversion and engine development for the Titan II took only 18 months from initial testing to first production delivery.
Engines developed for Titan II were selected by NASA as the launch system for the Gemini program that placed two-man vehicles in space. Titan II launched the 10 Earth-orbiting, manned Gemini missions.
Throughout the years, Titan played a major role as a U.S. launch vehicle and was uprated several times resulting in the Titan IV. Vacuum thrusts for storable Titan Stage 1 engine systems range from 474,000.bf for Titan II to 548,000 lbf for Titan IV. Vacuum thrusts for Stage 2 engine systems range from 100,000 lbf for Titan II to 105,000 lbf for Titan IV.